Tumor lysis syndrome is a condition that occurs when a large number of cancer cells die within a short period. Its contents are released into the blood.
Tumor lysis syndrome is the most common disease-related emergency encountered by doctors who care for children or adults with leukemias. Although it develops most often in patients with acute leukemia, However, its frequency is increasing among patients with tumors that were rarely associated with this complication.
Tumor lysis syndrome occurs when cancer cells release their contents into the bloodstream. either spontaneously or in response to treatment, leading to the characteristic consequences of hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, These disorders can develop into toxic effects. including renal insufficiency, Cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death due to multiple organ failure.
Although it is difficult to determine the best ways to classify and treat risks, However, standardized standards for the management of TLS are beginning to evolve. Actually , Several groups advocated guidelines for risk classification and made recommendations for risk assessment and for the prophylactic treatment of tumor lysis syndrome.
When cancer cells break down rapidly in the body, Levels of uric acid, potassium, and phosphorous rise faster than the kidneys can remove them. This causes tumor lysis. Excess phosphorous can lead to calcium “absorption”, This leads to low levels of calcium in the blood. Changes in the levels of uric acid, potassium, phosphorous and calcium in the blood can affect the functioning of many organs. especially the kidneys, As well as the heart, brain, muscles and digestive system.
Not all cancer patients are at risk of developing tumor lysis. Patients with a large “tumor burden” of cancer cells and tumors that usually contain rapidly dividing cells, such as acute leukemia or high-grade lymphoma, as well as tumors that are highly responsive to treatment, They are more likely to have tumor lysis. Tumor lysis can occur spontaneously (before cancer treatment) but is most common within a week of starting treatment. Tumor lysis is not limited to patients receiving conventional chemotherapy; It can also occur in patients receiving steroids, hormone therapy, targeted therapy, or radiotherapy. Dehydrated patients and those with renal dysfunction are more likely to have tumor lysis.
Nausea with or without vomiting
Lack of appetite and fatigue
dark urine, lack of urination, or flank pain
Numbness, seizures, or hallucinations
Muscle cramps and spasms
Kidney failure and death can occur, Especially if tumor lysis is left untreated.
Tumor lysis is diagnosed based on blood tests, Along with signs and symptoms. His appearance may be hidden, With a small number of abnormal laboratory values, But it may also present with renal failure and outright failure.
Can a tumor be prevented from degeneration?
Some measures can reduce the chances of developing a tumor degeneration. Your doctor will consider the results of your blood tests and characteristics of your cancer to determine your risk of developing tumor degeneration and what preventive measures to use. Intravenous fluids can help the kidneys flush toxins from the urine. Medicines such as allopurinol and raspuricase reduce uric acid levels in the blood and may be prescribed.
How is tumor degeneration treated?
Even with precautionary measures, Tumor lysis can still develop. Patients at risk of developing tumor lysis undergo blood tests and clinical monitoring before and during treatment to ensure early diagnosis if it does develop. The treatment is similar to preventive measures, including intravenous fluids, allopurinol, Especially raspuricase. Patients may need admission to the intensive care unit. Blood work is done frequently to assess electrolyte levels and kidney damage. Heart rhythm and urine output are closely monitored. Some patients with severe kidney injury may need temporary dialysis.
At the end of this article, we recommend seeking medical help in case of any changes in the nature of the body and feeling symptoms of cancer. Treatment at Duxpert Health focuses primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and how to control the symptoms associated with it.
As explained in this article about the methods of treating tumor lysis syndrome through “Duxpert Health”, and if you have any questions or inquiries, do not hesitate to send them to be answered as soon as possible.
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